Dating in exposed and surface contexts

SYNONYMS OR RELATED TERMS: fire-place, hearth CATEGORY: structure DEFINITION: A place for building a fire, especially a semiopen space with a chimney; housing for an open fire within a dwelling. Very early medieval fireplaces had semicircular backs and hoods and there was no chimney; the smoke passed out through an opening in the wall. Early fireplaces were made of stone; later, brick became the more popular material.CATEGORY: feature DEFINITION: Any place where a pit was dug and a fire built, sometimes identified by charcoal, baked earth, ash, discoloration, or an outline of stones or clay footing.Low energy fluvial sediment, like shallow channel fills with millimeter-scale, horizontally-bedded, medium sands is the preferred facies for OSL dating (Schaetzl and Forman, 2008).Higher energy facies with erosion of previous deposited sediments and formation of new grains with clast percussion during saltation and creep at the base of the water column often yield a mixture of apparent grain ages.There was a long succession of Pietersburg industries and some signs of typological continuity between the Acheulian and the Pietersburg assemblages.

Eolian sediments, like loess, sand sheet deposits, dune sands and cover loams are the most preferred sediments for OSL dating because of the long (hours) light exposure prior to deposition.Ancient Hazor consisted of a large, rectangular lower city (170 acres) and a bottle-shaped upper city (30 acres), essentially an elongated mound called a tel, which rises about 40 m. Yigael Yadin, the archaeologist who excavated at Hazor from 1955–19–1969, documented the great conflagration that accompanied the total destruction of the final Late Bronze Age city, which he believed to have occurred by Evidence of this destruction consists of layers of ashes, burnt wooden beams, cracked basaltic slabs, mutilated basaltic statues, and fallen walls.Yadin’s findings in the lower city confirm that public structures such as the Orthostats Temple and the Stelae Temple were violently destroyed, while the renewed excavations in the upper city—under current excavator Amnon Ben-Tor—corroborate the existence of a fierce conflagration that also is mostly limited to public buildings.With improvements in methodology and instrumentation, luminescence dating is becoming a much more useful chronometric tool in archaeology.Procedures for dating ceramics are relatively routine and their accuracy has been demonstrated in a number of studies.

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